This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the United States.
Women who smoke during pregnancy are about twice as likely to experience the following pregnancy complications: Although this complication has a good prognosis in Western countriesit causes stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life on their own.
The fetus can be put in distress, and can even die. The mother can lose blood and can have a haemorrhage; she may need a blood transfusion.
There can also be complications, such as maternal hemorrhage. These conditions can result in heavy bleeding during delivery that can endanger mother and baby, although cesarean delivery can prevent most deaths.
According to a study published in in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, there is an especially high risk for children to be born with a chronic tic disorder if their mother is a heavy smoker. Heavy smoking can be defined as ten or more cigarettes each day. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with psychiatric disorders such as ADHD.
Concerning the increase risk for Tourette syndrome, there is an increased risk when two or more psychiatric disorders are also existent as maternal smoking leads to a higher chance of having a psychiatric disorder.
Moreover, because the fetus cannot breathe the smoke out, it has to wait for the placenta to clear it. These effects account for the fact that, on average, babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have low birth weight less than 2, grams or 5.
The death also remains unexplainable upon autopsy. Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of SIDS due to the increased levels of nicotine often found in SIDS cases.
Infants exposed to smoke during pregnancy are up to three times more likely to die of SIDS that children born to non-smoking mothers.Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus..
Ideally, women should not smoke before, during . The following articles are culled from Alternative Medicine Review, the premier alt-med urbanagricultureinitiative.com of these articles recommend nutritional supplementation as a component of case management.
Please refer to our Nutrition Section for more information regarding specific nutrients of interest. Search the Alt-Med Section Please read our Nutrition .
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid urbanagricultureinitiative.com thyroid gland is located on the front of the neck below the laryngeal prominence, and . In an analysis of patients enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prediction model based on Framingham Heart Study criteria was better than prehypertension at identifying young adults who went on to develop new hypertension in the following 25 years.
Advice and warnings for the use of Sertraline (Zoloft) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category C - Risk cannot be ruled out. Open Access Article│urbanagricultureinitiative.com pISSN │eISSN National Journal of Community Medicine│Volume 3│Issue 4│Oct – Dec Page