You can help by adding to it. August The law designated the Electric Reliability Council of Texas ERCOT to be the authority to oversee grid reliability and operations so as to ensure no particular buyer or seller would gain an unfair advantage in the market. The "price to beat"[ edit ] Included within SB7 was the notion of the "price to beat" or PTB, an idea of a regulated rate governing the pricing behavior of the former utilities.
Institutional postal systems that developed during the later Middle Ages also conveyed letters between private persons, with or without official sanction and for a substantial fee in either case.
Initially, such letters were relatively few.
Outside the institutions with their own postal services, the… Types of market structures Competition is directly influenced by the means through which companies produce and distribute their products.
Different industries have different market structures—that is, different market characteristics that determine the relations of sellers to one another, of sellers to buyers, and so forth. Aspects of market structure that underlie the competitive landscape are: Concentration of sellers Seller concentration refers to the number of sellers in an industry together with their comparative shares of industry sales.
A more common situation is that of oligopolyin which the number of sellers is so few that the market share of each is large enough for even a modest change in price or output by one seller to have a perceptible effect on the market shares or incomes of rival sellers and to cause them to react to the change.
In a broader sense, oligopoly exists in any industry in which at least some sellers have large shares of the market, even though there may be an additional number of small sellers.
When a single seller supplies the entire output of an industry, and thus can determine his selling price and output without concern for the reactions of rival sellers, a single-firm monopoly exists. Product differentiation The structure of a market is also affected by the extent to which those who buy from it prefer some products to others.
In some industries the products are regarded as identical by their buyers—as, for example, basic farm crops. In others the products are differentiated in some way so that various buyers prefer various products.
Ease of entry Industries vary with respect to the ease with which new sellers can enter them. The barriers to entry consist of the advantages that sellers already established in an industry have over the potential entrant.
Such a barrier is generally measurable by the extent to which established sellers can persistently elevate their selling prices above minimal average costs without attracting new sellers. The barriers may exist because costs for established sellers are lower than they would be for new entrants, or because the established sellers can command higher prices from buyers who prefer their products to those of potential entrants.
The economics of the industry also may be such that new entrants would have to be able to command a substantial share of the market before they could operate profitably.
The effective height of these barriers varies. One may distinguish three rough degrees of difficulty in entering an industry: Market conduct and performance It is helpful to distinguish the related ideas of market conduct and market performance.
Market conduct refers to the price and other market policies pursued by sellers, in terms both of their aims and of the way in which they coordinate their decisions and make them mutually compatible.
Market performance refers to the end results of these policies—the relationship of selling price to costs, the size of output, the efficiency of production, progressiveness in techniques and products, and so forth. The arguments in favour of monopolies are largely concerned with efficiencies of scale in production.
For example, proponents assert that in large-scale, integrated operations, efficiency is raised and production costs are reduced; that by avoiding wasteful competition, monopolies can rationalize activities and eliminate excess capacity; and that by providing a degree of future certainty, monopolies make possible meaningful long-term planning and rational investment and development decisions.
Against these are the arguments that, because of its power over the marketplace, the monopoly is likely to exploit the consumer by restricting production and variety or by charging higher prices in order to extract excess profits; in fact, the lack of competition may eliminate incentives for efficient operations, with the result that the factors of production are not used in the most economical manner.
Perfect competition Market conduct and performance in atomistic industries provide standards against which to measure behaviour in other types of industry. The atomistic category includes both perfect competition also known as pure competition and monopolistic competition.
In perfect competition, a large number of small sellers supply a homogeneous product to a common buying market. In this situation no individual seller can perceptibly influence the market price at which he sells but must accept a market price that is impersonally determined by the total supply of the product offered by all sellers and the total demand for the product of all buyers.
The large number of sellers precludes the possibility of a common agreement among them, and each must therefore act independently. At any going market price, each seller tends to adjust his output to match the quantity that will yield him the largest aggregate profitassuming that the market price will not change as a result.Monopoly and competition: Monopoly and competition, basic factors in the structure of economic markets.
In economics monopoly and competition signify certain complex relations among firms in an industry. A monopoly implies an exclusive possession of a market by a supplier of a product or a service for which there is no.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com became common in advanced industrial economies in the s and s, as a result of new trends in economic thinking about the inefficiencies of government regulation, and the risk that regulatory agencies would be controlled by.
Deregulation and the Competitive Electricity Market. Prior to , electric utilities operated as regulated monopolies, providing all parts of electricity service to customers within certain parts of the state.
Europe has built one of the most competitive telecommunications markets in the world. It is balancing the objective of stimulating effective competition in the market with social economic policies relating to an inclusive Information Society. 3 Hours Ago. LONDON, Nov HSBC and China Investment Corp are in talks to create a fund for the Chinese sovereign wealth fund to invest in companies in Britain that have business links with.
What is the deregulation of energy?. Over the last several years, a number of states have begun to change the regulations in the energy industry to enhance competition between energy providers.