In Jallianwala Bagh, visitors can still see the bullet marks on garden's walls. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on April 13, This is remembered as one of the deadliest attacks in the history of the world and is also a turning point in India's freedom struggle. At the Jallianwala Bagh, which is garden spread across 6 to 7 acres, a large gathering of 15, people with a majority of Sikhs, took place to celebrate the Punjabi harvest festival of Baisakhi.
Millions of Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian administration and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition.
However, Bengal and Punjab remained sources of anticolonial activities. Revolutionary attacks in Bengal, associated increasingly with disturbances in Punjab, were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.
The planned February mutiny was ultimately thwarted when British intelligence infiltrated the Ghadarite movement, arresting key figures.
Mutinies in smaller units and garrisons within India were also crushed. In the scenario of the British war effort and the threat from the militant movement in India, the Defence of India Act was passed limiting civil and political liberties.
Michael O'Dwyerthen the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab, was one of the strongest proponents of the act, in no small part due to the Ghadarite threat in the province. Rowlatt Committee and Rowlatt act The costs of the protracted war in money and manpower were great.
High casualty rates in the war, increasing inflation after the end, compounded by heavy taxation, the deadly flu pandemicand the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The pre-war Indian nationalist sentiment was revived as moderate and extremist groups of the Indian National Congress ended their differences to unify.
British political concessions and Whitehall's India Policy after World War I began to change, with the passage of Montague—Chelmsford Reformswhich initiated the first round of political reform in the Indian subcontinent in Mahatma Gandhirecently returned to India, began emerging as an increasingly charismatic leader under whose leadership civil disobedience movements grew rapidly as an expression of political unrest.
The recently crushed Ghadar conspiracy, the presence of Mahendra Pratap 's Kabul mission in Afghanistan with possible links to then nascent Bolshevik Russiaand a still-active revolutionary movement especially in Punjab and Bengal as well as worsening civil unrest throughout India led to the appointment of a Sedition committee in chaired by Sidney Rowlattan English judge.
It was tasked to evaluate German and Bolshevik links to the militant movement in India, especially in Punjab and Bengal. On the recommendations of the committee, the Rowlatt Actan extension of the Defence of India Actwas enforced in India to limit civil liberties. Ominously, inthe Third Anglo-Afghan War began in the wake of Amir Habibullah 's assassination and institution of Amanullah in a system strongly influenced by the political figures courted by Kabul mission during the world war.
As a reaction to Rowlatt act Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned from his Bombay seat, writing to viceroy a letter, "I, therefor, as a protest against the passing of the Bill and the manner in which it was passed tender my resignation The situation especially in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly, with disruptions of rail, telegraph and communication systems.
The movement was at its peak before the end of the first week of April, with some recording that "practically the whole of Lahore was on the streets, the immense crowd that passed through Anarkali was estimated to be around 20, This situation deteriorated perceptibly over the next few days.
Michael O'Dwyer is said to have been of the firm belief that these were the early and ill-concealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated uprising around May, on the lines of the revoltat a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer.
The Amritsar massacreas well as responses preceding and succeeding it, was the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy. In Amritsar, over 5, people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh.
The British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Michael O'Dwyeris said to have believed that these were the early and ill-concealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated revolt around May, at a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer. The Amritsar massacre, as well as responses preceding and succeeding it, have been described by some historians as the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy.
The demonstration was to demand the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence MovementSatya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlewwho had been earlier arrested by the government and moved to a secret location. Both were proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi.
A military picket shot at the crowd, killing several protesters and setting off a series of violent events. Later the same day, several banks and other government buildings, including the Town Hall and the railway station, were attacked and set on fire.
The violence continued to escalate, culminating in the deaths of at least five Europeans, including government employees and civilians. There was retaliatory shooting at crowds from the military several times during the day, and between eight and twenty people were killed.
On 11 April, Marcella Sherwood, an English missionary, fearing for the safety of her pupils, was on her way to shut the schools and send the roughly Indian children home.
She was rescued by some local Indians, including the father of one of her pupils, who hid her from the mob and then smuggled her to the safety of Gobindgarh fort.
I wanted them to know that a British woman is as sacred as a Hindu god and therefore they have to crawl in front of her, too.
Marcella Sherwood later defended Colonel Dyer, describing him "as the 'saviour' of the Punjab". Railway lines were cut, telegraph posts destroyed, government buildings burnt, and three Europeans murdered.
By 13 April, the British government had decided to put most of the Punjab under martial law.In Amritsar, India’s holy city of the Sikh religion, British and Gurkha troops massacre at least unarmed demonstrators meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, a city park.
May 22, · The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) was one of the saddest events, that will likely never fade away from our memory.
It was so horrific and saddening that even today, people are left wondering if . The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, , British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children.
9 days ago · If Jallianwala Bagh was the end of any coexistence of the colonised with the imperial power, it was the incidents that occurred in the days before the massacre that dealt the final blow. A group of people pointing at the marks of the bullets in Jallianwala Bagh.
May 22, · The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) was one of the saddest events, that will likely never fade away from our memory. It was so horrific and saddening that even today, people are left wondering if it could have been avoided.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (also known as the Amritsar massacre), was a seminal event in the British rule of India. On 13 April , a crowd of non-violent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab.
On the orders of Location: Amritsar, British India.